Tag Archives: riyadh

Arab Saudi Kaji Usia Minimal Pernikahan

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Riyadh, 20/4 – Arab Saudi sedang mengkaji pemberlakuan batas usia minimal bagi pernikahan, kata seorang pejabat Departemen Kehakiman pada Ahad, setelah satu pengadilan mensahkan pernikahan seorang anak perempuan yang berusia 8 tahun dengan seorang pria yang lebih tua 50 tahun.

Harian Al-Madina, dengan mengutip keterangan Mohamed Al-Babtain, direktur urusan pernikahan di Departemen Kehakiman, melaporkan departemen itu telah mulai “mengkaji usia sah pernikahan”. Namun ia tak memberi perincian lebih lanjut.

Arab Saudi tak memiliki batas sah usia bagi pernikahan.
Beberapa pejabat Departemen Kehakiman tak bersedia memberi komentar.

Surat kabar tersebut juga mengutip ucapan seorang tokoh agama kenamaan Sheikh Mohsen Al-Obaikan bahwa anak perempuan yang berusia di bawah 18 tahun tak boleh diizinkan menikah.

“Sebagian orang-tua menikahkan putri mereka karena alasan pribadi atau materi atau karena bermacam daya tarik tanpa mempedulikan kepentingan anak perempuan tersebut,” kata Al-Obaikan.

Al-Obaikan menyerukan diberlakukannya larangan bagi pernikahan anak perempuan kecil yang berusia di bawah 18 tahun guna menghindari keburukan ini, kata harian tesebut.

Satu pengadilan di kota kecil Unaiza untuk kedua kali pekan lalu mensahkan pernikahan anak perempuan itu dengan pria yang lebih tua 50 tahun dari dirinya, dengan syarat pria tersebut tak berhubungan seks dengannya sampai ia mencapai masa puber.

Al-Obaikan, yang juga adalah penasehat Raja Abdullah, adalah tokoh agama paling senior yang telah berbicara menentang pernikahan anak perempuan di bawah umur tersebut sejak putusan pengadilan itu, yang telah mengundang kecaman internasional dan membuat malu pemerintah Arab Saudi.

Sistem kehakiman Arab Saudi terdiri atas ulama, yang menjadikan hukum Islam sebagai rujukan utama ilmu hukum mereka.

Arab Saudi adalah negara dengan sistem patriarkhal, yang menerapkan ajaran Sunni –yang melarang laki-laki dan perempuan yang bukan muhrim untuk berbaur dan memberi ayah hak untuk menikahkan putra dan putri mereka dengan siapa pun yang mereka pandang cocok.

Banyak tokoh agama di Arab Saudi, termasuk pemimpin ulama di Kerajaan tersebut Mufti Besar Sheikh Abdul-Aziz Ash-Sheikh, mengesahkan perbuatan itu.

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Utusan AS Mitchell di Saudi Temui Raja

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Riyadh, 20/4 – Utusan khusus AS George Mitchell terbang ke Arab Saudi Minggu untuk membicarakan upaya damai Timur Tengah dengan Raja Abdullah, beberapa pejabat AS mengatakan.

Mitchell dijadwalkan untuk bertemu dengan Abdullah, Menteri Luar Negeri Pangeran Saud al-Faisal dan kemungkinan beberapa pejabat penting yang lain, seorang jurubicara kedutaan besar AS mengatakan.

Ia tiba di Riyadh setelah berhenti di Israel, wilayah Palestina dan Mesir, tempat ia menekankan dukungan AS pada solusi dua-negara bagi konflik Israel-Palestina yang telah berusia beberapa dasawarsa.

Riyadh juga menyokong solusi dua-negara dengan Prakarsa Perdamaian Arabnya 2002, yang menawari Israel pengakuan Arab sebagai pertukaran bagi pembentukan negara Palestina berdasarkan pada penarikan Israel dari tanah yang didudukinya.

Memulai upaya Presiden AS Barack Obama untuk menghidupkan kembali pembicaraan damai, Mitchell mengatakan di Kairo, Sabtu, bahwa Washington akan mendesakkan “energi besar” untuk mengejar penyelesaian dua negara.

“Telah menjadi kebijakan AS selama banyak tahun bahwa penyelesaian bagi konflik Israel-Palestina terletak pada solusi dua-negara,” ia mengatakan pada wartawan setelah pertemuan dengan Presiden Mesir Hosni Mubarak.

Awal pekan ini, Mitchell bertemu dengan PM Israel Benyamin Netanyahu dan Presiden Palestina Mahmud Abbas. Namun pesannya disambut dengan skeptisisme oleh sejumlah pejabat dalam kabinet Netanyahu.

“Dalam keadaan sekarang ini, orang harus bekerja bukan untuk dua negara bagi dua rakyat, tapi untuk dua ekonomi bagi dua rakyat,” kata Menteri dalam Negeri Israel Eli Yishai.

PM Netanyahu sendiri belum pernah menyatakan dukungannya pada solusi dua-negara, yang mana AS membayangkan Israel akan hidup dengan aman di samping negara Palestina.

Di Ramallah, Tepi Barat, Jumat, Mitchell mengatakan AS ingin prakarsa perdamaian Arab akan menjadi bagian dari upaya untuk mencapai solusi dua-negara tersebut. Prakarsa itu selain menawarkan hubungan normal dengan Israel, juga minta tiga hal sebagai pertukarannya, yakni penarikan penuh dari tanah yang Israel rebut dalam perang Timur Tengah 1967 (Tepi Barat termasuk Jerusalem Timur, Dataran Tinggi Golan Suriah dan Jalur Gaza), pembentukan negara Palestina dan “solusi yang adil” bagi pengungsi Palestina.

Pendahulu Netanyahu, Ehud Olmert, mengatakan ia melihat hal-hal positif dalam prakarsa perdamaian Arab itu. Namun Israel menentang kembalinya pengungsi Palestina ke rumah mereka, yang telah jadi negara Yahudi, dan ingin mempertahankan blok-blok permukiman besar Yahudi di Tepi Barat.

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US Envoy Mitchell in Saudi to Meet King

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RIYADH, April 20, 2009 – US special envoy George Mitchell flew in to Saudi Arabia on Sunday to discuss Middle East peace efforts with King Abdullah, US officials said.

Mitchell was scheduled to meet Abdullah, Foreign Minister Prince Saud al-Faisal and possibly other top officials, a US embassy spokesman said.

He arrived in Riyadh after stops in Israel, the Palestinian territories and Egypt, where he emphasized US support for a two-state solution to the decades-old Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Riyadh has also strongly advocated a two-state solution with its 2002 Arab peace initiative, which offers Israel blanket Arab recognition in exchange for creating a Palestinian state based on an Israeli pullout from occupied land.

Prince Faisal and other senior Saudi diplomats have called on Washington to pressure Israel into negotiations for a final peace deal.

Spearheading US President Barack Obama’s efforts to revive peace talks, Mitchell said in Cairo on Saturday that Washington would exert “great energy” in pursuit of a two-state settlement.

“It has been the policy of the United States for many years that the solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict lies in a two-state solution,” he told reporters after meeting Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.

Earlier in the week, Mitchell met Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas. But his message was met with scepticism by some in Netanyahu’s hawkish cabinet.

“In the present circumstances, one has to work not for two states for two people, but for two economies for two people,” Israeli Interior Minister Eli Yishai said on Thursday.

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Saudi Arabia Looks into Minimum Age for Marriage-Paper

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Riyadh, April 20 – Saudi Arabia is looking into introducing a minimum age for marriage, a justice ministry official was quoted as saying on Sunday, after a court upheld the marriage of an 8-year-old girl to a man 50 years her senior.

Al-Madina newspaper quoted Mohamed al-Babtain, the director of marriage officials at the justice ministry, as saying the ministry had started “looking into the legal age of marriage”.

He did not elaborate.

Saudi Arabia has no legal age limit for marriage.

Justice ministry officials were not available for comment.

The newspaper also quoted prominent cleric Sheikh Mohsen al-Obaikan as saying that girls below the age of 18 should not be allowed to marry.

“Some parents marry off their daughters for personal or material interest or for various allurements with total disregard for the girl’s interest,” Obaikan said.

Obaikan called for a ban on “marrying off little girls below the age of 18 to avoid these blights”, the newspaper added.

A court in the town of Unaiza upheld for the second time last week the marriage of the girl to a man who is about 50 years her senior, on condition he does not have sex with her until she reaches puberty.

Obaikan, also an adviser to King Abdullah, is the most senior cleric so far to have spoken out against the marriage of underage girls since the court’s ruling which has drawn international criticism and embarrassed Saudi authorities.

The Saudi judiciary system is made up of clerics for whom Islam’s early teachings are the main jurisprudential references.

Saudi Arabia is a patriarchal society that applies an austere form of Sunni Islam which bans unrelated men and women from mixing and gives fathers the right to wed their sons and daughters to whoever they deem fit.

Many Saudi clerics, including the kingdom’s chief cleric Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdul-Aziz Al al-Sheikh, endorse the practice.

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Raja Saudi Buka Dewan dengan Seruan Pada Persatuan Arab

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Riyadh, 25/3 – Raja Saudi Abdullah menyerukan persatuan Arab dan Palestina di hadapan “agresi” Israel ketika ia membuka sidang Dewan Shura (konsultatif) baru kerajaan itu Selasa.

Berbicara satu pekan sebelum pertemuan puncak Liga Arab di Qatar, Abdulah mengatakan pada badan yang memiliki 150 anggota yang ditunjuk itu bahwa perbedaan di antara negara-negara Arab dan Islam telah dieksploitasi oleh Israel dan menyumbang pada “cuaca gelap” di kawasan itu.

Namun ia menambahkan bahwa perselisihan yang mendalam di antara kelompok-kelompok Palestina yang bahkan lebih serius ketimbang kebijakan Israel sebagai tantangan bagi persatuan Arab.

“Tantangan yang dihadapi negara anda, pada tingkat domestik dan tingkat negara-negara Arab dan Islam minta sebanyak dua kali tanggungjawab dalam menghadapi tantangan karena tantangan itu muncul satu setelah yang lainnya, termasuk agresi Israel yang membuat kerusakan di tanah tersebut (Gaza),” katanya.

Kekhawatiran khususnya adalah “perselisihan Palestina di antara saudara-saudara yang lebih serius dalam membahayakan urusan kita saja ketimbang agresi Israel”, kata raja, juga menunjuk pada “perbedaan Arab dan Islam yang menggetarkan musuh dan menyakiti teman”.

Agresi 22 hari Israel yang mematikan terhadap Jalur Gaza pada peralihan tahun telah memperdalam perselisihan antara penguasa wilayah itu Hamas dan presiden Palestina Mahmud Abbas yang didukung-Barat.

Agresi itu juga menciptkan keretakan di dunia Arab antara pemerintah seperti Qatar dan Suriah yang menyuarakan dukungan pada Hamas, dan Arab Saudi serta Mesir yang berpihak dengan tegas pada Abbas.

Arab Saudi sejak itu mendorong keras rekonsiliasi Arab, menjadi tuan rumah bagi para pemimpin Suriah, Mesir dan Kuwait untuk pertemuan puncak-mini 11 Maret dalam upaya untuk menyelesaikan perbedaan sebelum pertemuan puncak Arab yang ditetapkan pada 29 dan 30 Maret.

Kerajaan itu juga telah minta berulang kali pada gerakan Islam Hamas untuk memperbaiki hubungan dengan pemimpin Palestina.

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Saudi King Opens Council with Call for Arab Unity

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RIYADH, March 25, 2009 – Saudi King Abdullah called for Arab and Palestinian unity in the face of Israeli “aggression” as he opened the new session of the kingdom’s Shura (consultative) Council on Tuesday.

Speaking a week before an Arab League summit in Qatar, Abdullah told the 150-member appointed body that differences among Arab and Islamic countries had been exploited by Israel and contributed to a “dark atmosphere” in the region.

But he added that the deep rift between Palestinian factions was even more serious than Israeli policy as a challenge to Arab unity.

“The challenges that face your nation, at the domestic level and the level of Arab and Islamic nations require twice as much responsibility in countering them as they emerge one after another, including Israeli aggression that creates mischief in the land,” he said.

Particularly concerning was “the Palestinian dispute between brothers which is more serious in jeopardising our just cause than Israeli aggression,” the king said, also pointing to “Arab and Islamic differences that thrill the foe and pain friends.”

Israel’s deadly 22-day onslaught against the Gaza Strip at the turn of the year deepened the rift between the territory’s Hamas rulers and Western-backed Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas.

It also created a split in the Arab world between governments like Qatar and Syria which voiced support for Hamas, and Saudi Arabia and Egypt which sided firmly with Abbas.

The Saudis have since pushed hard for Arab reconciliation, hosting the leaders of Syria, Egypt and Kuwait for a March 11 mini-summit in a bid to settle differences ahead of the Arab summit set for March 29 and 30.

The kingdom has also called repeatedly for the Islamists of Hamas to mend fences with the Palestinian leadership.

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Arab Saudi Desak Iran Gunakan Saluran Diplomatik

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Riyadh, 16/3 – Arab Saudi hari Minggu mendesak Iran bertindak melalui saluran-saluran diplomatik dalam mendukung perjuangan Arab, di tengah ketegangan yang meningkat antara kedua negara Islam yang berpengaruh itu.

Hubungan dekat Iran, yang berpenduduk Syiah non-Arab, dengan pejuang Lebanon Hizbullah dan kelompok-kelompok Palestina seperti Hamas, seringkali menjadi pusat ketegangan antara negara-negara Arab sekutu AS dan Teheran.

“Meski kami menghargai dukungan Iran bagi perjuangan Arab, kami berpendapat bahwa mereka harus melalui (kesatuan) Arab yang sah,” kata Menteri Luar Negeri Arab Saudi Pangeran Saud al-Faisal pada jumpa pers setelah kunjungan singkat Menteri Luar Negeri Iran Manouchehr Mottaki, yang melakukan pembicaraan dengan Raja Abdullah.

Dukungan Iran bagi perjuangan Arab “harus selaras dengan tujuan dan sikap” negara-negara Arab dan mendukung posisi mereka tanpa harus menjadi “pengganti bagi mereka”, kata Pangeran Saud.

“Masing-masing dari kami harus melakukan upaya penting untuk menjamin stabilitas dan ketenteraman hubungan berdasarkan kerja sama yang menghasilkan dan penghormatan timbal-balik,” katanya.

Teheran berusaha melawan pengaruh Barat di kawasan itu sejak revolusi Islam Iran pada 1979.

Arab Saudi, yang menganggap dirinya sebagai pemimpin negara-negara Sunni, khawatir bahwa AS dan Iran akan mencapai sebuah perjanjian bersejarah yang mengakui Iran sebagai kekuatan regional di kawasan Teluk, yang memungkinkan timbulnya ancaman terhadap kekuasaan keluarga Al-Saud.

Iran terlibat dalam ketegangan dengan negara-negara Barat yang menuduhnya berusaha membuat senjata nuklir. Teheran bersikeras bahwa program nuklirnya hanya untuk menghasilkan listrik.

Presiden AS Barack Obama telah menyinggung-nyinggung kemungkinan mengajak Iran dalam perundingan langsung mengenai program nuklirnya dan permasalahan lain, dalam sebuah langkah yang menunjukkan peralihan kebijakan dari pendahulunya, George W. Bush.

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Saudi Arabia Urges Iran Respect Diplomatic Channels

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Riyadh, March 16 – Saudi Arabia on Sunday urged Iran to act through diplomatic channels in supporting Arab causes, as tensions grow between the two Islamic powerhouses.

Non-Arab, Shi’ite Iran’s close ties with Lebanese guerrilla group Hezbollah and Palestinian Islamist factions such as Hamas have often been at the heart of tensions between U.S.-allied Arab states and Tehran.

“While we appreciate the Iranian support for Arab causes, we think that it must come through the rightful Arab (entities),” Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud al-Faisal told a news conference, after a brief visit by his Iranian counterpart Manouchehr Mottaki who held talks with King Abdullah.

Iran’s support for Arab causes “must be in harmony with the goals and stances” of Arab governments and back their positions without being “a substitute for them”, Prince Saud said.

“Each of us has to deploy the necessary effort to ensure the stability and steadiness of relations on the basis of fruitful cooperation and mutual respect,” he added.

Iran has challenged Western influence in the region since its 1979 Islamic revolution.

Saudi Arabia, which sees itself as leader of mainstream Sunni Islam, fears the United States and Iran will come to an historic agreement recognising Iran as the regional power in the Gulf, creating a possible threat to Al Saud family rule.

Iran is involved in a stand-off with Western nations which accuse it of seeking to develop nuclear weapons. Tehran says its nuclear programme is only for power generation.

U.S. President Barack Obama has talked of engaging Iran in direct talks on its nuclear work and other issues, in a break from the policy of his predecessor George W. Bush.

Riyadh and fellow predominantly-Sunni Arab conservatives who maintain close ties with the United States are alarmed at Iran’s influence in Iraq, Lebanon and Gaza, through backing for political groups, and they accuse Syria of facilitating this.

King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia brought together on Wednesday Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and Kuwait’s emir, Sheikh Sabah al-Ahmad al-Sabah, to close ranks ahead of an Arab summit later this month in Qatar.

Prince Saud said of the gathering: “I can described the Riyadh meeting as an ice-melting meeting.

“Steps towards (Arab-Syrian) reconciliation have not yet been achieved for us to give a statement about the issue.”

The schism in the Arab world over Iran and Western influence in the region came to the surface in January over Israel’s offensive in the Hamas-run Gaza Strip.

Qatar held an emergency summit in January, attended by Hamas figures and Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Egypt and Saudi Arabia refused to attend, insisting that an Arab economic summit in Kuwait would suffice.

The Egyptian and Saudi leaders declined to attend the 2008 Arab summit in Damascus because of the deep divide.

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Pangeran Turki bin Faisal Meninggal diluar Kerajaan

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Riyadh, 28/2 – Pangeran Turki bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdulaziz As Saud, 58 tahun, mantan Kepala Intelijen Arab Saudi dan utusan khusus Arab Saudi di London dan Washington, Jum’at, meninggal dunia karena serangan jantung, pada saat ia sedang melakukan kunjungan ke luar negeri, demikian pernyataan pihak kerajaan Arab Saudi.

Upacara pemakaman dan pemanjatan doa untuk almarhum dilangsungkan di Masjid Al-Imam Turki bin Abdullah di Riyadh, Sabtu, setelah shalat Ashar waktu setempat, kata pernyataan itu.

Sementara itu Raja Abdullah bin Abdulaziz As Saud, Jum’at, juga mengirim kawat berdukacita kepada Raja Mohammed VI dari Marokko atas wafatnya Putri Lala Amina, saudari Raja Mohammed V.

Dalam kawat tersebut, Raja Arab Saudi menyampaikan dukacita yang dalam dan mendoakan agar Allah SWT mengampuni segala dosanya dan menjauhkan almarhumah dari penderitaan.

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Nine Arrested After Clashes in Muslim Holy City

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RIYADH, Feb 25, 2009 – The Saudi holy city of Medina was calm on Tuesday night a day after clashes between Shiite pilgrims and Sunnis resulted in nine arrests, witnesses said.

There were further disturbances and arrests early Tuesday but calm was restored after talks between senior local officials and Shiite representatives, the witnesses told AFP by telephone.

Interior ministry spokesman Mansur al-Turki confirmed that nine people were arrested on Monday following clashes at the Prophet Mohammed’s mosque in the western city, which attracts millions of Muslim pilgrims every year.

Turki denied reports of casualties from state-run media in Shiite Iran.

“The security authorities will issue a statement later to clarify what happened, the nationalities of the participants in the fight and their motives, once the investigation is over,” Turki said.

Accord to media accounts and rights groups the violence spilled over from tensions over treatment of the pilgrims from the country’s heavily Shiite eastern region by Saudi religious police.

Some accounts of the dispute said it involved the religious police hampering the Shiites’ access to Al-Baqi cemetery adjacent to the prophet’s mosque.

Iran’s Arab-language satellite channel reported that the Shiite pilgrims were commemorating the death of Mohammed and his grandson, the second of the line of imams revered in Shiite Islam, who is buried in Al-Baqi cemetery.

Shiites account for only about 10 percent of the Muslim population of Saudi Arabia, which is dominated by a very conservative version of Sunni Islam.

Some Saudi clerics deride Shiites as rejectionists, but recent government initiatives have sought to bridge the sectarian divide, most recently King Abdullah’s decision last week to name several new Shiite members to the kingdom’s consultative Shura Council.

The Saudi group Human Rights First condemned the attack on the pilgrims, calling on the government to launch an investigation and bring the perpetrators to justice.

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Sembilan Orang Ditangkap Setelah Bentrokan di Madinah

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Riyadh, 25/2 – Kota suci Madinah di Arab Saudi tenang Selasa malam, satu hari setelah bentrokan antara peziarah Syiah dan Sunni yang menyebabkan sembilan orang ditangkap, beberapa saksi mengatakan.

Ada kekacauan dan penangkapan lagi Selasa pagi tapi ketenangan telah pulih setelah pembicaraan antara para pejabat senior setempat dan wakil Syiah, saksi-saksi itu mengatakan melalui telpon.

Jurubicara kementerian dalam negeri Mansur al-Turki menyatakan, sembilan orang telah ditangkap, Senin, menyusul bentrokan di Masjid Nabi Muhammad di kota di Saudi barat itu, yang menarik jutaan peziarah Muslim setiap tahun.

Turki membantah laporan mengenai korban dari media milik-negara di Iran yang Syiah.

“Pihak berwenang keamanan akan mengeluarkan pernyataan kemudian untuk mengklarifikasi apa yang terjadi, kebangsaan peserta dalam pertempuran itu dan motif mereka, ketika penyelidikan selesai,” kata Turki.

Beberapa laporan mengenai perselisihan itu mengatakan, bentrokan tersebut melibatkan polisi agama yang merintangi akses masyarakat Syiah ke pemakaman Al Baqi di dekat Masjid Nabawi.

Saluran satelit berbahasa-Arab Iran melaporkan bahwa peziarah Syiah itu sedang memperingati kematian Nabi Muhammad dan cucu laki-lakinya, garis kedua imam yang dihormati dalam Islam Syiah, yang dimakamkan di pemakaman Al-Baqi.

Orang-orang Syiah hanya sekitar 10 persen dari penduduk Muslim Arab Saudi, yang didominasi oleh versi Islam Sunni yang “sangat konservatif”.

Beberapa ulama Saudi mencemooh orang Syiah sebagai pengapkir, tapi prakarsa pemerintah telah diusahakan untuk menjembatani pembagian sektarian itu, yang paling belakangan adalah keputusan Raja Abdullah pekan lalu untuk menunjuk beberapa anggota baru Syiah ke dewan kosultatif Shura kerajaan itu.

Kelompok Human Rights First Saudi mengutuk serangan terhadap peziarah itu, dan minta kepada pemerintah untuk melakukan penyelidikan dan membawa pelakunya ke pengadilan.

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Al Qaeda Figure Surrenders to Saudi Authorities-TV

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RIYADH, Feb 18 – A former Guantanamo detainee who became an al Qaeda commander has turned himself in to the Saudi authorities, Saudi-owned Al Arabiya television said on Tuesday.

Mohammed al-Awfi, who had been released from a Saudi centre for those returning from the U.S. military prison camp in Guantanamo, appeared on an al Qaeda video last month to say he had joined al Qaeda’s regional wing in Yemen as a commander.

The television station said Awfi, on a wanted list of 85 al Qaeda-inspired Islamist militants overseas issued by Saudi Arabia this month, had contacted the Saudi authorities three days ago before surrendering in Yemen.

Neighbouring Yemen has said it arrested dozens of suspects in a manhunt for al Qaeda-linked militants in recent weeks.

The Saudi interior ministry’s spokesman for security affairs could not be immediately reached for comment.

The announcement of the Saudi wanted list followed a move last month by al Qaeda’s wing in neighbouring Yemen to name Awfi and a fellow Saudi released from Guantanamo as commanders.

In last month’s video, the group’s Yemeni leader Abu Basir Nasser al-Wahayshi, threatened attacks against Westerners in the region.

Al Qaeda’s Saudi wing launched a campaign to destabilise the world’s largest oil exporter in 2003 but the violence ended after a long campaign of arrests.

Saudi Arabia also put hundreds of militants through a rehabilitation programme which included religious re-education by clerics and financial help to start a new life.

But the kingdom acknowledged last month that some of those released had rejoined militant groups and that nine, including Guantanamo returnees, had been re-arrested.

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